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  1. 12.7.1 The mitral regurgitation jet
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  3. Quantification of mitral regurgitation | sonography
  4. The Role and Potential of 3D Echocardiography in the Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation

12.7.1 The mitral regurgitation jet

Imaging 24 5 ,— Circulation 96 6 ,— Circulation 80 3 ,— Ultrasound Med. Circulation 12 ,— Circulation 11 Suppl. Circulation 75 4 ,— Circulation 6 ,— Circulation 14 Suppl.

Circulation 23 ,— Echocardiography 24 5 ,— Chest 6 ,— Heart 93 6 ,— Role of modern 3D echocardiography in valvular heart disease. Published online 15 March No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript. Close Figure Viewer. Previous Figure Next Figure. Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing and estimating the severity of aortic stenosis AS. The different echocardiographic methods used for evaluation of the aortic valve AV for the presence of stenosis are detailed in table 1.

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TTE is the most well-established imaging modality for evaluating and assessing the severity of AS. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. Skip to main content.

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Evaluation and Management of Mitral Regurgitation - 1: Guidelines and Quantification

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Quantification of mitral regurgitation | sonography

Forgot your user name or password? The following are points to remember: Initial evaluation with no prior imaging: Asymptomatic patients.

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Transthoracic echocardiography TTE is an appropriate test among patients with unexplained murmur or abnormal heart sounds, reasonable suspicion for VHD, history of rheumatic heart disease, known disease associated with VHD, first-degree relatives of patients with bicuspid aortic valve, or exposure to medications that could result in VHD.

Three-dimensional 3D transesophageal echocardiography TEE may be appropriate among patients with reasonable suspicion for VHD, or history of rheumatic heart disease. Symptomatic patients.

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TTE is appropriate in many scenarios among symptomatic patients, including patients with syncope and no other symptoms or signs of cardiovascular disease; hypotension with hemodynamic instability and uncertain or suspected cardiac origin or suspected aortic AR or mitral regurgitation MR ; respiratory failure of uncertain etiology; new heart failure HF ; suspected infective endocarditis IE with positive blood cultures or new murmur; or suspected cardiac mass, tumor, thrombus, or cardiac source of embolus CSOE.

Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography DSE is appropriate among symptomatic patients with low-flow, low-gradient severe AS and low left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF.

The Role and Potential of 3D Echocardiography in the Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation

Follow-up in asymptomatic or stable symptomatic patients: Routine surveillance TTE is appropriate every years among patients with stage A at risk or mild stage B valve regurgitation; every years in patients with moderate stage B VHD; every 1 year in asymptomatic severe stage C1 AS; every months in asymptomatic severe stage C1 MR; and after control of systemic hypertension in patients with low-flow low-gradient severe AS with normal LVEF. Follow-up in patients with worsening symptoms: TTE is appropriate among patients with known VHD and change in clinical status or cardiac examination.

Postoperative imaging after surgical valve replacement or repair: Surgical valve replacement with no symptoms or stable symptoms.